This enzyme is widely used in the food industry (baking, dairy and meat). Its wide application is associated with specific technological properties.
In the baking it guarantee a better structure of the bread dough, it increases the elasticity and also makes the flesh lighter and less porous. In addition, it allows
to extend the freshness of bread while maintaining the desired organoleptic properties by the consumer.
In the dairy industry - it is responsible for obtaining a creamier consistency of yogurt, but also the possibility of eliminating the following additives: carrageenans, gelatin
and starch, in the case of cottage cheese, obtaining a better grain structure and reducing production costs.
In the meat industry - mainly used as a binder to join larger pieces of meat in the production of ham, sausages, hot dogs.
Gluten is a protein that is relatively difficult to break down completely. It is a useful technological feature for baking bread, but extremely problematic for people
struggling with intolerance to this compound.
Gluten protein is broken down into smaller peptides that are more susceptible to the action of microbial transglutaminase (mTg). Meeting this enzyme with partially
degraded gluten contributes to its modification, creating new peptides resistant to further degradation. This in turn increases the potential gluten allergenicity as it binds
to HLADQ2 and HLA DQ8 molecules and causes an immune response, but only in genetically predisposed individuals.
Additional harmfulness resulting from the presence of bacterial transglutaminase is related to the increased permeability of the intestinal barrier. It contributes to the
modification of proteins responsible for maintaining its integrity, which in turn leads to various gastroenterological problems.
The biggest problem with microbial transglutaminase is the lack of requirements for its labeling on the product label, therefore the consumer is not able to obtain
information whether a given bread has been baked using this enzyme.
Unfortunately, the baking of gluten-free bread also takes place using mTg, which may explain why some people with celiac disease experienced gastroenterological
ailments after consuming 100% gluten-free bread, but industrially baked. In this situation, it remains to bake the bread yourself.
Scientists examined the levels of toxic chemicals in the blood of children and young adults. The team found that people who had increased levels of pesticides and other
chemicals had a double risk of developing celiac disease. Additionally, it was noticed that women are more predisposed with regard to the influence of environmental
exposure on the development of celiac disease
In women, the increased content of pesticides in the body was associated with an 8 times greater risk of developing celiac disease, while in men the risk was only 2
However, studies that assess the impact of gluten consumption on the development of celiac disease are so far limited to observational studies in animals or looking for
possible links between the causative factor - glyphosate and the disease - celiac disease.
Fish exposed to glyphosate have digestive problems that resemble celiac disease. Celiac disease is associated with a disturbance of the microbial balance, and
presumably in this mechanism, glyphosate may contribute to the development of celiac disease or other adverse reactions to gluten.
Celiac patients have an increased risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, which is also linked to glyphosate exposure. According to some studies, the dangers of glyphosate
may also explain several aspects reproductive problems related to celiac disease such as infertility, miscarriage and birth defects.
It adversely affects the tight junction between cells in the gut, leading to leaky gut, which also occurs in people with celiac disease.
Aleksanda Sadowska, Anna Diowksz, Properties of transglutaminase and its role in baking. Science. Technology. Quality, 2016, 5 (108), 9 - 17
Abigail Gaylord, Leonardo Trasande, Kurunthachalam Kannan, Kristen M. Thomas, Sunmi Lee, Mengling Liu, Jeremiah Levine. Persistent organic pollutant exposure and celiac disease: A pilot study. Environmental Research, 2020
Matthias Torsten Lerner Aaron ,,, Microbial Transglutaminase Is Immunogenic and Potentially Pathogenic in Pediatric Celiac Disease, Front Pediatr. 2018 Dec 11
Anthony Samsel, and Stephanie Seneff, Glyphosate, pathways to modern diseases II: Celiac sprue and gluten intolerance, Interdiscip Toxicol. 2013 Dec; 6 (4): 159–184.